40 Landslides: Movement of Big Rocks, Sediments

General Introduction:

  • Landslides are defined as the movement of large rocks, sediments, or landslides.
  • Landslides are a form of “mass destruction,” which means the subjugation of land or rock by gravity.
  • The term “race” includes five types of slope: fall, surface, slides, spreads, and moves. These are the subdivisions of other soils (paths, seeds, or soils).
  • Toxic sediments (commonly called mudflows or mudslides) in rock formations are examples of common soil types.
  • Almost every erosion has many causes. Migration occurs when forces moving down a slope (mainly due to gravity) exceed the force of the earth’s slope.
  • Reasons include factors that increase the effect of slope or decrease intensity.
  • In the current valley, soils can appear near the movement of rain, melting snow, changes in water levels, race, water changes, earthquakes, volcanic activity, turbulence from human activity, or some of these things.
  • Earthquakes and other events can also cause underwater erosion.
  • These erosions are called underwater erosion. Sometimes submarines cause strong waves that damage coastal areas.
  • Moves along the slope of a mass of rocks, rubble, earth, or soil (soil is a mixture of earth and debris).
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Types Of Landslides

The terms of the Landslides are generally classified according to the type of movement (landslides, flows, expansions, overturns, or falls) and the type of material (rock, debris, or earth). Sometimes more than one type of movement occurs within a landslide, and since the temporal and spatial relationships of these movements are often complex, their analysis often requires a detailed interpretation of terrain shapes and geological cross-sections or cores.

Landslides have three major causes:

Geology

  • Geology indicates the nature of the material.
  • The floor or stone may be weak or damaged, or other pieces may differ in strength and stiffness.

Morphology

  • The morphology indicates the structure of the land. For example, slopes that lose vegetation due to fire or drought are more prone to landslides.
  • Vegetation provides the soil in space, and without the root system of trees, shrubs, and other plants, the land is more easily slipped.
  • The classic morphological cause of landslides is erosion or soil erosion due to water. In April 1983, the town of Thistle, Utah, experienced a massive landslide due to heavy rain and melting snow.
  • The earth’s surface was eventually 305 meters wide, 61 meters thick, and 1.6 kilometers (1,000 feet deep, 200 feet thick, and one mile long) gliding on the nearby Spanish Fork River, damming and eliminating railroads and highways.
  • The landslide was the largest in U.S. history, causing more than $ 400 million in damage and destroying Thistle, which remains an evacuated ghost town today.

Human Activity

  • Human activities, such as farming and construction, can increase the risk of landslides. 
  • An Irrigation, deforestation, excavation, and water leakage are some of the common activities that can help erode, or damage slopes.
  1. Landslide Movement :
    1. There are several ways to describe the movement of an avalanche.
    2. These include falls, rollovers, slips, side slips, and streams.
    3. On rolls and tipping, large blocks of material are destroyed after being separated from a very steep slope or cliff. Stones that have fallen on the slopes.
    4. In forward slides, the surface material is separated from the more stable underlying slope layer.
    5. An earthquake can shake the loose topsoil from the harder ground beneath this type of landslide.
    6. Lateral spread or flow is the movement of material sideways or sideways.
    7. This happens when a powerful force, such as an earthquake, makes the earth move quickly, like a liquid.
  1. Landslide Material:
    • The landslide may involve rock, soil, vegetation, water, or some combination of all these.
    • The landslide caused by a volcano can also contain hot volcanic ash and lava from the eruption.
    • A landslide high in the mountains may have snow and snowmelt.
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  1. Volcanic eruptions:
    1. Volcanic eruptions, also called lahar, are among the most devastating.
    2. The largest exports in history occurred when the 1980s erupted at Mount St. Helens in the Washington state of U.S. ash, rocks, soil, grass, and streams, covering about 2.9 cubic miles (0.7 cubic miles), covers an area of ​​62 square miles (24 square miles).
  1. Other Factor:
    • Another factor that may be needed to explain the landslide is speed.
    • Some landslides move a few meters per second, while others move one or two centimeters a year.
    • The amount of water, ice, or air on Earth must also be taken into account.
    • Some landslides involve toxic gases that penetrate deep into the earth through volcanic eruptions.
    • Some landslides, called landslides, are very wet and move very fast.
    • Complex earthworms contain a mixture of different substances or types of movements.

Main Types of Landslide Impact

Main types of landslide impact include:

  • Loss of life and injury
  • Damage to buildings and infrastructure
  • Disruption of services, loss of business and loss of confidence
  • Loss of land resource.
  • Environmental degradation.
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Approaches for Analysis and Understanding may Include:

  • Deterministic or/and probabilistic methods
  • Landslide inventory and mapping using GIS
  • Observational approach or/and modeling and simulation
  • Hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment Strategies for minimizing impacts may include one or more of the following:
  • Development controls based on susceptibility and hazard zoning.
  • Regional or/and site-specific investigation
  • Preventive strategies adopted during slope assessment and design
  • Remedial actions such as restraining works after landslide occurrence.
  • Early Warning Systems.

Mitigation of Landslide impacts and/ OR Potential Disasters

  • The above strategy plays an important role in understanding and managing landslide risk.
  • Landslide management and mitigation can also bring significant benefits from these approaches.
  • However, the monitoring approach will greatly enhance strategic landslide management at all key stages, such as prevention, remediation, early warning, and recovery.
  • Every project has specific requirements and the strategic approach must be flexible to accommodate individual project goals and objectives.
  • More importantly, future challenges must be considered carefully developing new or expanded strategies for landslide research and management.

Prevention majors of Landslide Disaster Situation

Prevention Majors Before Landslide

  1. The key to staying safe is to prepare and develop an emergency plan. 
  2. Find out if you live in an area where landslides can occur. 
  3. Landslides can also be called landslides, avalanches, landslides, or gravel avalanches. 
  4. Listen to local news and weather forecasts to learn about landslide monitoring and warnings that may occur in your area. 
  5. Discuss what to do if a landslide occurs with your family and neighbors. Know a safe meeting place. 
  6. Practice practicing with your family so you know what to do and prepare.
  7. Get to know the country where you live and work so that you understand the risks in different situations.
  8. Avoid actions that could increase instability. For example, don’t evaluate a steep slope; do not build on steep or nearby slopes; do not place the filling on steep slopes, and do not empty the pools or otherwise increase the flow of water on the slopes. 
  9. Learn to identify predictable landslide signals. 
  10. These can include cracks in the slope, bumps on the slopes, unusual waterfalls on the slope, sudden changes in current flow, and small boulders. 
  11. Follow the rules for rainwater runoff on slopes near your home, especially where debris is spilled. 
  12. If you see these signs, know who to tell.
  13. Get emergency numbers for city contact numbers. 
  14. Prepare emergency equipment.

Prevention Majors During Landslide

  1. Be ready to evacuate at any time.
  2.  If you suspect immediate danger, evacuate immediately. 
  3. If possible, report the affected population and contact the public works, fire department, or police department. 
  4. Listen for unusual sounds that may indicate moving debris, such as a tree cracking or a rock banging together.

Prevention Majors After Landslide

  1. Listen to the radio, watch your local news, and/or follow your local news and/or emergency services staff. 
  2. City leaders and officials. Stay away from the slide until area workers say it is safe to enter. 
  3. Find and advertise products that do not pose a risk to the right people. 
  4. Demonstrate the ability to make electrical connections as soon as possible, preventing further injury and injury. 
  5. Inspect stone houses, fireplaces, and surrounding soil for damage.
  6. Replace soils that have been damaged as soon as possible due to erosion by soil layers that can cause flooding. 
  7. If you feel your home is not good, do not enter.
  8. Rely on professionals to clean your home for re-entry, if you do not know.

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