ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

Introduction:

Environmental inheritance, a process by which the structure of a biological community develops over time. Primary and secondary successors have been separated. Early inheritance occurs primarily in inanimate areas where the soil is unable to sustain life due to factors such as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or disciplinary deviations from retreating glaciers. Secondary inheritance occurs in areas where a pre-existing community has been removed, typed by small-scale disturbances that do not remove all life and nutrients from the environment.

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Definition:-

The ecosystem successor is a biological phenomenon so that one biological community helps to replace another biological community because both the biological community and the biological community participate in this environmental phenomenon.

TYPE OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

There are two type of ecological succession:

  1. Primary succession:
    • Primary Succession can be defined as the process of growth in an area that was previously uninhabited, barren, unoccupied and there was no initial vegetation.
    • The biological and ecological traditions of plant life, occurring in environments where new layers of non-vegetation and other organisms usually lack soil, such as a lava flow or retreat from a retreating glacier.
    • It is the gradual growth of an ecosystem over a long period of time. pioneering primary inheritance species such as lichens, algae, and fungi, as well as other abiotic factors such as wind and water, begin to “normalize” habitat.
    • The basic inheritance begins in rock formations, such as volcanoes or mountains, or a place with no organisms or land.
    • Inheritance brings the closest optimal conditions for the growth of vascular plants, pedogenesis or soil formation, and increasing the number of shadows are the most important processes.
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  1. Secondary Succession: 
    • Secondary inheritance can be said to be the growth of a community that was first occupied, populated, and primary vegetation but due to some external or internal factors.
    • Secondary inheritance occurs in areas where the biological community already exists, but part or all of that community has been removed by small-scale disturbances that have not eliminated life and nutrients in the environment.
    • Fires, floods, and other calamities can cause many plants and animals to grow and return the biological community to its former state, society does not begin from the beginning, as in the first case, because the land provides so much food. Would be According to the old biological community, they are signed.
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Difference between Primary and Secondary

Set AgainstPrimary SuccessionSecondary Succession
DefineAn Environmental successor, which originates or starts in arid, uninhabited, and uninhabited areas, such as newly formed ponds, rocks, lakes, etc.A type of succession, which occurs in an area where there was a prior life but was caused by natural disasters such as floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, etc.
ProcessingAbout the 1000-1200 years or more.Almost 40-200 years.
Elements of HumusIn the absence of hummus, there is no soilThe secondary succession shows that it exists in humus.
CommunityThere are many intermediary gentry communities.Compared with the primary inheritance, there are few spine communities in the middle.
Structure of ReproductiveThere was no community before.Previous community usage currently living in the area.
occurranceIt occurs in inanimate or barren areas.It happened in an area that was recently deprived of life and was previously inhabited.
Community of PioneerIt exists and comes from outside.It was developed from immigrants and former residents.
Soil SuccessionThere is no soil at the beginning of the process, this condition is not suitable for sustaining life.There are soil and some living things.
Environment of FavorableInitially, the environment is unfavorable.From the beginning, the environment was very favorable.
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Difference between Ecosystem and Community

Ecosystem: The ecosystem consists of living organisms (biological components) and non-living organisms (non-biological Components), which is a link between them for energy exchange and biogeochemical cycles.

Community: The community consists of a group of different species living together and interacting with them in one area.

Set AgainstEcosystemCommunity
DefineThe ecosystem consists of living organisms (biological components) and non-living organisms (non-biological Components), which is a link between them for energy exchange and biogeochemical cycles.The community consists of a group of different species living together and interacting with them in one area.
IncludesEcology includes all components of biological (life) and non-biological (non-life) factors.The community only includes biological factors.
Changes factorsAlthough it has been transformed into another ecosystem, the ecosystem will not change with any impact conditions.The community may change as environmental factors change.
ExampleForests, estuaries, ponds, grasslands.  Just like different kinds of birds (Darwin finch) living in the same area, another example is animals, plants and bacteria living in the same environment.

Difference between Food Chain and Food Web

Food Chain: The energy flow on a single straight path from lower trophic level to higher trophic level is called the food chain.

Food Web: The numerous food chains connected to each other are called food webs through the energy flow in the ecosystem.

Set AgainstFood ChainFood Web
DefineThe energy flow on a single straight path from lower trophic level to higher trophic level is called the food chain.The numerous food chains connected to each other are called food webs through the energy flow in the ecosystem.
No. chainsIt only contains a straight chain.It consists of many interconnected food chains.
Value of StabilityAs more and more separate and closed food chains increase instability.Due to the complex food chain, stability is improved.
DisturbanceGroup of organisms interfere, the entire chain will be affected.The food web will not be disturbed by removing a group of organisms.
Feed uponGenerally, members with higher nutritional levels depend on or feed on single organisms with lower nutritional levels.In the food web, members with higher levels of nutrition depend on or feed on many different types of organisms with lower levels of nutrition.
Level of TrophicThe food chain only contains the nutritional levels of 4-6 different species.The food web also contains the nutritional levels of many different species.
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