Ecosystem – Interaction with Organism System Relationship


The Earth is the only planet orbiting the Sun that is known to support life. Life exists only in a very thin layer surrounding the earth, which is called the biosphere. The sun is the only source of energy that provides continuous interaction between various life forms. In addition to the fact that we all got acquainted with the external and internal environment of the body, which also includes us, both the external and internal environment of the organism affects its existence and survival. The components of the body’s external environment include both physical and living components. The action and interaction of the physical and living components of an organism form a system of relationships called an ecosystem. It also deals with the structure and properties of the ecosystem, basic concepts of ecosystem functioning, and control factors.

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Fig. 1: Organism of Ecosystem Environments

What is an ecosystem?

It is a specific area of ​​land where plants and animals, including ourselves, develop relationships with each other for the sake of life, food, water, shelter, and mating. A discrete unit has both living and non-living components of the environment, which are interdependent and interconnected in terms of their structure, components, and functioning.

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Fig. 2 : Schematic Representation of an Ecosystem

Feature Of Ecosystem:

An ecosystem has both structural and functional features some of which you have studied.

Structural Features

The structural aspect of the ecosystem refers to all the elements that make up an ecosystem- Individuals and communities of plants and animals and the no-living factors present in the ecosystem. The structural components include:

  1. Abiotic Components (Non-Living Components):
  2. Inorganic Compounds- Carbon, NO2, CO2, HO2.
  3. Organic Compounds- Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, which link the abiotic to biotic components.
  4. Climatic Regimes- Temperature, Moisture, light, and topography.
  5. Biotic Components (Living Components):
  6. Producers- Plants
  7. Consumers- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary.
  8. Decomposers- Saprotrophs

Functional Features

Functional aspects refer to all the processes and interaction performed by the organisms in an ecosystem and include:

  • Food Chains
  • Diversity- Interlinks between organisms
  • Nutrient cycles- biogeochemical cycles
  • Succession
  • Energy

Size Of An Ecosystem

The ecosystem may vary in size from the smallest puddle of water or terrestrial habitat to a landscape or large forest, a biome, or even the entire global biosphere or ecosphere.

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Fig. 3: Size of ecosystem

Components Of Ecosystem

Abiotic Components:

The abiotic factor is an inanimate part of an ecosystem that makes up its environment. In the Earth’s atmosphere, examples could include temperature, light, and water. In the marine ecosystem, abiotic factors will include salinity and ocean currents. Abiotic and biotic factors work together to create a unique environment.

Biotic Components:

Biotic factors are living organisms of an ecosystem. Due to the complexity of the ecosystem’s functioning – as complex systems of competition and cooperation, where the functioning of each organism can affect the other – any living thing in an ecosystem can be considered an abiotic factor. Biotic elements such as soil bacteria, plant life, top predators, and pollutants can all shape the depth of living in the ecosystem and what survival techniques they use. Biotic elements combine with inanimate exercises such as temperature, sunlight, geography, and chemistry to determine what the ecosystem looks like and what ecological space is available.

The basis for Variation Biotic factors and Abiotic Factors

VariationBiotic factorsAbiotic factors
Define factorAbiotic factor is a living organism that shapes an ecosystem.  Organic matter or organic matter in an ecosystem is a living physical and chemical combination of nature.
Dependent factorsBiotic factors depend on abiotic factors for their survival and development.  Abiotic factors do not depend on biotic factors for their presence.  
EqualizationThe measurement of the biotic component is specific.The measurement of the abiotic part is objective.  
RelationLiving organisms can be directly or indirectly related to other organisms in an ecosystem.Ecological factors determine the number and type of living organisms in an ecosystem.  
AdaptedBiological factors have the ability to adapt to changes in the environment.  Climate factors are not able to adapt to environmental conditions.  
Range factorsChanges in one biotic factor rarely cause changes in other groups.  Changes in any organic element can lead to significant changes in biotic factors.
ElementsBiological factors include many plants, animals, bacteria, and algae that act as producers, consumers, or disposers.  Abiotic factors include soil exposure, natural barriers to climate, and ecosystems.  
ResourcesBiological resources are forests and forest products, marine resources such as fish, etc.  Climate resources include land, water, soil, and coal.  
AssociationBiological factors can form different associations such as syphilis, parasitic and predatory associations.  No such associations are formed among the abiotic factors.  
ExamplesHumans, insects, wild animals, birds, bacteria, etc. are some examples of biotic factors.Soil, rainfall, humidity, temperature, pH, climate, etc. are some examples of abiotic factors.
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Fig. 4: Basis for Variation Biotic factors and Abiotic factors

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